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canola blossom

GM biotechnology makes significant contributions to crop production and the environment

Research by PG Economics Limited, a United Kingdom advisory and consultancy firm, found that genetically modified (GM) crops have increased global food, feed and fibre production by nearly 1 billion tonnes (1996-2020). At the same time, the technology helped farmers reduce the environmental footprint associated…

canola in bloom

Weed shifts in herbicide-resistant canola systems

Since the introduction of herbicide-resistant canola systems, difficult-to-control species such as cleavers, volunteer canola, green foxtail, and foxtail barley have increased in abundance. Green foxtail was associated with glyphosate-resistant systems. Wild oat was predominant in longer canola rotations with glufosinate and imidazolinone-resistant canola. Herbicide-resistant (HR)…

Sprout of bromus tectorum, downy brome, drooping brome or cheatgrass closeup macro selective focus grass rural background in wild nature, shallow focus with copyspace.

Control glyphosate-resistant downy brome with soil-applied herbicides

Fierce provided 99% visible control and biomass reduction of glyphosate-resistant downy brome 8 weeks after treatment. High rates of Focus and Heat Complete, and two rates of Authority Supreme provided excellent control greater than 90%. Glyphosate-resistant downy brome was confirmed in a glyphosate-resistant canola field…

mature winter wheat

Reducing herbicide inputs in winter wheat

In winter wheat cropping systems, pre-plant weed management combined with two in-crop fungicide applications optimized grain yield. An in-crop herbicide application proved to be unnecessary, however multiple applications of fungicides were needed to optimize grain yield and grain protein concentration. Winter wheat can offer substantial…

EEF plots Lethbridge

Enhancing CWRS wheat through EEFs and N rates

On Dark Brown soils, the use of a dual-inhibitor EEF resulted in increased grain yield and delivered improved net return benefit compared to urea. Other EEF sources tested yielded similarly in the Dark Brown soils. However, in the Black and Grey soils, the EEFs tested…

Wild oat head

Herbicide-resistant weeds growing in Saskatchewan

Group 1 and Group 2 herbicide-resistant weed patches were widespread in Saskatchewan covering an estimated 15.315 million acres (6.198 million ha) in a total field area of 28.211 million acres (11.417 million ha). Given the linear increase in herbicide-resistant weeds, every annually cropped field in…

kochia seedling

Kochia control in glufosinate-resistant canola

Single and sequential applications of glufosinate provided excellent control of Group 2 and Group 2 + 9 resistant kochia. Treatments containing sulfentrazone (which were experimental and not registered) caused excellent control but unacceptable crop injury. Layering strategies with ethalfluralin and/or carfentrazone followed by glufosinate may…

canola rainbow

Climate change trends on the Prairies

Research found increases in growing degree days, corn heat units, the number of frost-free  days, and average, maximum and minimum air temperature on the Prairies. Average annual precipitation and growing season precipitation have increased in Canada, but western Canada had increases in some regions and…

cabbage seedpod weevil Barkley

Cabbage seedpod weevil review

Cabbage seedpod weevil continues to expand across the Prairies, contributing to yield losses of 5 to 30%. Insecticidal control remains the main management strategy despite decades of research into alternative biological and cultural methods of control. The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is native…

swathing canola

Enhanced efficiency fertilizers had little impact on yield

In this 2-year study, there was no significant benefit of a urease inhibitor, with or without a nitrification inhibitor, on canola and wheat N removal, N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency or yield. These inhibitors also did not significantly reduce the amount of leached nitrate in…

L keltoni flixweed DJohnson

Revising Lygus bug economic injury levels

The overall Economic Injury Level was found to be around 9 to 23 Lygus bugs per 10 sweeps using $15.47/bu ($682/tonne) canola prices. However, insecticide trials on farmers’ commercial fields found that yield was protected from Lygus feeding with a foliar insecticide application at the…

JD wheat harvest

Enhanced efficiency fertilizers cut nitrous oxide emissions in spring wheat

Nitrification-inhibitor products – either alone or in combination with an urease inhibitor – reduced N2O emissions by 38% to 43% compared to untreated urea in spring wheat in southern Manitoba. However, there were few yield or grain protein benefits to using the EEFs products. Environment…

Red combine harvesting corn in a farm field

Starter fertilizer increased corn grain yield

Starter phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) fertilizer increased early-season growth, plant height, P concentration, and uptake of P and Zn in plant tissue, relative to the unfertilized control. In some cases, starter fertilizer reduced days to maturity and grain moisture content. The  largest responses were…

IWM plots

Integrated weed management to control herbicide-resistant weeds

Integrated weed management (IWM) strategies using increased seeding rates, 2 years of early cut silage barley, and a rotation with competitive winter cereals improved control of wild oat and foxtail species (green and yellow). Treatments with IWM also improved control of lamb’s quarters, cleavers, kochia,…

canola swathing

Optimizing nitrogen fertility for hybrid canola

Canola yield increased by up to 40% with increasing N rate up to 134 lbs/ac (150 kg/ha) pre-plant (i.e. close to seeding) application via broadcast or banding. There was no significant difference in yield between pre-plant only N application and a split pre-plant plus top-dress…

No till seeding

No-till improves yield and soil organic carbon in western Canada

In western Canada, no-till improved wheat yield by 7%, canola by 10%, and legumes like beans, peas and lentils by 9% compared to conventional tillage. These higher yields provide higher carbon inputs into the soil to help increase soil organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas…

Tidemann impact mill

Field testing of impact mills for weed control shows potential

Few significant differences were found in weed densities and the weed seedbank between a combine with a physical impact mill and a regular combine without the impact mill. This may have been because of the short time frame of the 3-year experiment, the high initial…

Wheat Cu and Zn fertilization plots

Copper and zinc antagonism on low phosphorus soils

When Cu and Zn fertilizers were applied to phosphorus (P) deficient soils at 4.5 lbs/ac (5 kg/ha) rate, wheat yields were reduced. Symptoms of micronutrient metal toxicity were observed at early growth stages, and included purplish-red colour and chlorotic leaves. Liebig’s Law of the Minimum…

wheat in polyhouse micronutrient

Antagonistic effect of Cu+Zn on low phosphorus soils

The combined application of Cu + Zn had a significant negative effect on wheat yield grown under phosphorus (P) deficient soil conditions on a Dark Grey Chernozem Tisdale soil. This indicates that if Cu and Zn deficiencies are going to be corrected, P fertility should…

greenhouse pots

Temperature and soil moisture impact micronutrient uptake

Wheat, pea and canola uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and boron (B) was greater with optimum soil moisture and warm temperatures compared to drought and saturated soil moisture conditions or cold temperatures. Micronutrient deficiencies can occasionally occur on Prairie soils, but crop response to…

Pea Chickpea 2016 April 6 IMG_0314

Pulse intercrop shows promise in the Peace River Region

Lentil intercropped with faba bean or chickpea had higher total seed yield and LER (Land Equivalent Ratio) than monocrop lentil. Field pea intercrop with faba bean and chickpea produced smaller seed yield, LER and inconsistent results compared to monocrop field pea. Intercropping has gained interest…

Pea cereal plots

Pea-Cereal intercrop has advantages for forage production

Benefits of a pea-cereal intercrop for forage production included nitrogen (N) fixation and transfer of fixed N from the pea to the cereal component while maintaining dry matter yields equivalent to a cereal monocrop. Intercropping pea with a cereal crop for forage production is gaining…

canola field blooming

Reduced emissions with EEF fertilizer but little agronomic benefit

At 4 of 6 site-years, SuperU reduced N2O emissions by 30% to 57% compared to conventional urea, for all placement methods. However, there was no yield or economic benefit derived from the use of the enhanced efficiency fertilizer (EEF). Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major…

Female Inostemma walkeri

Wheat Midge Parasitism in the Peace River Region of Alberta

Wheat midge parasitism was found to be as high as 71% in the Peace River region of Alberta.  Parasitism was primarily by Macroglenes penetrans, the main parasitic wasp species that attacks wheat midge on the Canadian Prairies.  A parasitic wasp species, Inostemma walkeri, was newly…

JD combine wheat

Extra-tall stubble increases crop yield

Wheat, canola and chickpea yield and the overall average water use efficiency increased linearly as stubble height increased to 18 inches (45 cm) compared to cultivated stubble. Water use was independent of stubble height. Previous research on the semiarid Prairies found that seeding into 12…

combine and grain cart

Canola harvest losses can be high

Fifty combines were tested for harvest loss, with average losses of 1.3 bu/ac (72.9 kg/ha) or 2.8% of total yield. The maximum combine loss measured was 10.7 per cent of the producer’s yield at 4.1 bu/ac. Minimizing combine grain loss is usually a balance between…

Winter wheat seedling

EEF liquid N strategies for winter wheat

Liquid UAN with an urease inhibitor in a split application optimized N use efficiency, grain protein, yield and yield stability. EEFs did not affect greenhouse gas emissions. With the development of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEF), winter wheat growers have the opportunity to improve nitrogen use…

seedling canola in stubble

Higher canola yields when seeded into tall stubble

Canola yielded 24% higher when seeded into tall stubble, compared to stubble that had been cultivated in the fall. Additionally, canola seeded into tall stubble yielded 16% higher than if seeded into stubble that was left standing until spring, and then cultivated. On the semi-arid…

Straight cut canola

Windrow and direct-harvest canola losses similar

Swathed and direct-harvested canola suffered the same harvest seed losses, at 10.2% of total seed yield, and canola losses added to the seedbank averaged 830 viable seeds/ft2 (8300 viable seeds/m2). Before the development of shatter-resistant Brassica napus canola, seed shatter was a concern for canola…

wheat stubble harvest

Tall stubble improves pulse yield and water use efficiency

Averaged across 4 years, tall stubble increased yields by about 13% and short stubble increased yields by about 4% compared to yields from cultivated stubble treatments. On the semi-arid Prairies, moisture is often the limiting factor in pulse crop production. While this research is 20…

Fusarum damaged kernels

Twenty-six years of Fusarium head blight in western Canada

FHB status updateFusarium head blight incidence increased steadily after 1995, peaking in the epidemic year of 2016, but with low levels since then. Severity has remained relatively low over time, and not always correlated to incidence levels. Fusarium head blight (FHB) emerged as a serious…

pea aphid

Economic threshold for pea aphid in lentil

A new economic threshold of 36 ± 7 aphids (29 to 43 aphids) per 180 degree sweep was calculated for Saskatchewan lentil, and provides 7 days lead time to arrange insecticidal application. The economic injury level was calculated at 78 ± 14 aphids (64 to…

Glyphosate resistant kochia Treated 21d

Glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant kochia spreads in Saskatchewan

Glyphosate resistance was detected in 87% of kochia samples, while 45% were dicamba-resistant Kochia resistant to multiple modes of action is a significant problem across the Canadian Prairies. Herbicide resistance to Group 2 ALS inhibitors  was first identified on the Prairies in 1988, and a…

Canola harvest 5 combines

Genetically modified crops boost farm income

Over the period 1996 to 2020, the farm level economic benefits from genetically modified crops increased global farm income by $261.3 billion US dollars. In Canada, the average farm income increase from growing herbicide tolerant canola was $23.49/ac ($58.01/ha). Genetically modified (GM) soybean, corn, cotton…

chickpea-flax

Intercropping chickpea-flax reduces Ascochyta blight

A seeding rate of 50% chickpea and 50% flax resulted in maximum combined yield and land productivity, and reduced Ascochyta blight disease severity by 50 to 67% compared to monocrop chickpea, but flax competed with chickpea and reduced chickpea yield. Ascochyta blight, caused by Ascochyta…

DCIM100MEDIADJI_0008.JPG

Warming trends at the Breton Plots in Alberta

Significant increases in annual, growing season, and seasonal minimum air temperatures occurred between 1901 and 2020. There was also significant increases in growing degree days, frost free days, total annual precipitation, growing season precipitation, and off-season precipitation. This study examined climate trends at the Breton…

Aphanomyces pea greenhouse trial

Aphanomyces euteiches oospore soil thresholds levels

Aphanomyces root rot severity increased when oospore levels rose above 100 oospores per gram of soil. Below this level, Aphanomyces root rot did not develop in most soil types. Aphanomyces root rot, caused by the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, was first confirmed in Saskatchewan and…

Vulcan 9

Kochia persists in aerial seedbanks

Overwintering kochia plants, 7 to 8 months after plant senescence the previous fall, retained an estimated 2091 ± 297 seeds per plant in May. This represented an average estimated at 18.5 ± 1.9% of total seed production. Research has shown that kochia has a relatively…

faba bean in flower

Nitrogen fixation and nutrient uptake in faba bean

Average faba bean nitrogen (N) uptake was 205 pounds per acre (230 kg N/ha) and phosphorus (P) uptake was 23 lbs/ac (26 kg P/ha). Overall, faba bean fixed 88% of its nitrogen from the atmosphere. Faba bean is a high-protein pulse crop that has the…

rogator

Water quality can affect herbicide performance

The efficacy of weak-acid herbicides is improved with acidic spray water pH. Hard-water antagonism is more prevalent with weak-acid herbicides. Spray solution temperature between 18 C and 44 C is optimum for some weak-acid herbicides. The effect of water turbidity is severe on herbicides with…

seedling canola

Potential canola yield losses due to weeds in the billions

A research review of 89 canola studies found that the potential on-farm monetary loss from uncontrolled weeds in canola was about $2.21 billion on the Prairies, $0.16 billion in North Dakota, and $2.37 billion in both countries combined. Potential yield and financial losses from weed…

banding winter wheat

Urea fertilizer strategies for winter wheat

On dryland sites that have low to moderate productivity, winter wheat growers should band all N at planting to ensure maximum grain yield and protein content. For irrigated winter wheat production or in dryland areas with high yield potential, a split application of fall banded…

Blossom blight

Temperature and leaf wetness impact blossom blight in alfalfa

The optimum conditions for infection by Botrytis cinerea, the most common pathogen causing blossom blight in alfalfa in Canada, was a temperature between 15C and 20C with 12 to 24 hours of surface leaf wetness at flowering. Alfalfa seed production on the Prairies can be…

no-till seeding

Glyphosate enables carbon sequestration

The use of glyphosate and the introduction of glyphosate-tolerant crops spurred the development of no-till farming practices and the reduction in summerfallow.  On a 2,470 acre (1000 ha) farm, the net increase in carbon sequestration due to these farming practices was equivalent to the emissions…

GR downy brome

Glyphosate-resistant downy brome control

Quizalofop alone or in combination with imazamox, imazamox + bentazon, or imazamox/imazethapyr, and glufosinate mixed with clethodim resulted in more than 80% visible control, plant mortality, and reduction in biomass of glyphosate-resistant downy brome 21 days after treatment. Glyphosate-resistant downy brome was confirmed in a…

urea on snow

High broadcast urea volatilization losses occur on frozen soil

Cumulative NH3 loss (% applied N) from broadcast urea was highest with late-fall application at 16.4%, followed by 11.4% with winter applications and 2% with spring applications. Addition of NBPT urease inhibitor reduced losses by 65.6%. Broadcast urea is a practice that some winter wheat…

Seedling canola

Performance of phosphorus source and placement varied little

In this controlled environment chamber study, struvite and MAP had similar crop biomass yield and phosphorus (P) uptake in canola. There was no difference in canola germination between MAP and struvite, or opener spread of 1 inch or 3 inches, or fertilizer rate up to…

Blooming canola

Sulfur uptake from a co-granulated phosphate fertilizer differed across three climate zones

A lab-produced phosphate fertilizer fortified with two forms of sulfur (S) and labeled with 34S was created by the University of Adelaide to simulate MicroEssentials fertilizer and to obtain a better understand  of S recovery and uptake. Micro-plot trials were carried out at three sites,…

Blackleg and Verticillium stripe dual infection

Blackleg plus Verticillium stripe increases yield loss

In small plots and greenhouse conditions, blackleg severities on 2 canola hybrids were generally higher when Leptosphaeria maculans was co-inoculated with Verticillium longisporum than when L. maculans was applied alone. Blackleg disease, caused by L. maculans, has been an important disease in western Canada for…

Mid-row band N

Nitrogen management strategies for spring wheat

Under relatively dry conditions of this study, grain yield was not influenced by rate, source or timing. Split application of N resulted in higher grain protein. The application of a PGR increased grain yield but resulted in lower grain protein. When high N rates were…

V canola in soybean

Less weed competition for soybeans grown on low-nitrogen soils

Growing soybean on high soil mineral nitrogen (N) fields, or when N fertilizer was applied in increasing rates, resulted in an increase in volunteer canola competition and a corresponding linear decrease in soybean yield. Research was conducted in Manitoba looking at the resource-ratio (R*) hypothesis….

soil cores

Soil health scorecard developed for Saskatchewan

A Saskatchewan Assessment of Soil Health (SASH) scorecard was developed to help assess soil health from soil tests. The most important factors in determining soil health from soil tests were soil carbon and nitrogen factors of soil organic C, active C, total N, and soil…

Group 9 resistant kochia copy

Multiple resistant kochia continues to spread in Alberta

Kochia with resistance to glyphosate was found at 78% of sites sampled, with 44% of sites exhibiting fluroxypyr resistance, and 28% with dicamba resistance. Triple resistance to Group 2 ALS inhibitors, Group 9 glyphosate, and one of the Group 4 synthetic auxins was found at…

210 2c

Diversified crop rotation can replace winter wheat/fallow

On the semi-arid plains, this 6-year crop rotation study found that increasing cropping intensity with spring wheat, pea or lentil could match annualized total grain yields of winter wheat-chemfallow, as long as winter wheat followed a cover crop or fallow. Winter wheat-fallow rotations are practiced…

spring wheat plots

Maximizing spring wheat productivity

Management strategies such as split N application and the use of a plant growth regulator can help reduce lodging while maximizing yield and protein in spring wheat production. Farmers are achieving higher wheat yields today than in the past; however, there remains a gap between…

diversified crop rotation plots

Diversified cropping systems with pulses had high, stable yields

A long term rotation study at Swift Current, Saskatchewan found that a diversified crop rotation with wheat-canola-wheat-pulse produced more grain and protein yield than traditional cereal or fallow systems. The rotation was more stable over the years, and had high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). To…

irrigated beans

Economic optimum soybean plant density for irrigated soybean

The economic optimum seeding rate for irrigated soybeans in southern Alberta was calculated to be 58 seeds/m2 at 80% emergence, which is equivalent to 5.8 seeds/ft2 or 252,000 seeds/acre. In southern Alberta, the development of very early maturing varieties in the MG 00 and MG…

male sawfly (Goulet, H.)

Triticale variety and seeding rate affect wheat stem sawfly survival and parasitism

AC Ultima formed relatively solid stems at lower internodes compared to Pronghorn, although this did not reduce stem cutting by wheat stem sawfly.  Higher seeding rates of both cultivars resulted in lower wheat stem sawfly damage and higher amounts of sawfly parasitism. Little research has…

FHB on WW

G x E x M approach for Fusarium Head blight control

Researchers explored FHB management strategies focusing on a systems approach of Genotype (G) x Environment (E) x Management (M) interactions. They reviewed current literature, and included a recent western Canadian FHB research project as a case study of this approach. The results showed that a…

hybrid lentil plots

Hybrid breeding could improve lentil yields

New Australian research shows that lentil crop improvement through a combination of hybrids and hybrid mimics could be used to substantially boost yields as high as 50 per cent greater than commercial varieties. Hybrid vigour or heterosis can be generated in a wide variety of…

seedling canola

Canola nutrient and water use efficiencies reviewed

A research study reviewed factors affecting nitrogen, sulphur and water use efficiencies, and found that 4R stewardship of nutrients and some agronomic practices provided the greatest improvements. Economic and environmental sustainability of canola production is gaining more scrutiny in this era of emissions reductions and…

lentil rhizotron

Correlating root length to pea and lentil yield

Pea and lentil root lengths and depths were assessed as a breeding tool for cultivar selection. In field pea, the highest yielding cultivars were intermediary in both total root length and the proportion of root length found below 12 inches (30 cm) in the soil….

fall herbicide plots

Fall-applied residual herbicides suited for ultra-early seeded wheat

Fall applications of flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone, and combinations of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone to manage weeds emerging the following spring is a safe and effective weed management program in ultra-early seeded wheat. Ultra-early planting of wheat with a soil temperature trigger of 0-2.5 C has been shown…

Nitrous oxide plot measurements

EEFs did not reduce nitrous oxide emissions in winter wheat

Three enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied at seeding or in split applications between fall and spring did not reduce nitrous oxide emissions compared to conventional urea or UAN fertilizer when applied at 80% of recommended rate. A split application of 30% N at seeding…

Black medic in oat stubble

Agronomic benefits of black medic cover crops

A long-term study at Indian Head, Saskatchewan evaluated the effect of medic on grain yield, N and P of flax, wheat and oats with three different N treatments. Overall, medic had the greatest impact on crop productivity at the low N rate of 20 per…

Wheat harvest

Assessing yield gaps in wheat

The gap between actual wheat yield and potential wheat yield has remained relatively stable since 1960 in the top 10 wheat producing countries. Understanding yield gaps between actual and potential yield is a tool to help increase wheat production around the world. Estimates indicate that…

Kochia field

Integrated crop-livestock systems may be effective tool for managing herbicide-resistant kochia

For livestock producers, kochia is relatively high in crude protein and can be used as an alternative forage for alfalfa, or ensiled and used as an alfalfa silage replacement. Integrated crop-livestock systems may offer alternative weed control methods that are effective for managing herbicide-resistant kochia…

hail simulator

Foliar-applied hail recovery treatments ineffective

Simulated hail damage led to reductions in height, biomass, NDVI, grain yield, and kernel weight in wheat, field pea and dry bean. Average yield losses from heavy hail damage were up to 35% in wheat and dry bean, and 45% in field pea. Hail damage…

seedling corn

Nitrogen and Seeding Rates of Forage Corn

Moving to a high seeding rate increased DM and TDN yields and decreased CP and P concentrations in forage corn.  Using a high nitrogen fertilizer rate increased yields of DM, TDN and CP, increased soluble protein concentration, and reduced P concentration.  However, when net returns…

canopy management plots

Managing lodging with agronomic inputs in wheat

Low plant density, split nitrogen, and PGR application all showed potential to reduce lodging risk without reducing grain yield or protein concentration. Today’s high yielding spring wheat varieties bring with them the potential for lodging under high nitrogen inputs. The objectives of this study were…

flax flower

Integrated flax agronomy

Using fungicide and a high nitrogen (N) rate most consistently increased flax yield (11% increase). The combination of high plant density, narrow row spacing, high N fertilizer, and fungicide produced the highest yield response (23% more), but not in unfavorable growing environments. The most well-rounded…

18 inch row spacing

Canola response to row spacings and seeding rates

Research shows that the highest plant densities and yields were produced at a narrow row spacing of 9 inches compared to those of 12, 18 and 24 inch spacings in a no-till production system. Increasing seeding rates of 2.8, 5.7 and 8.5 pounds per acre…

diamondback moth eggs

Bertha armyworms feed more on canola plants with diamondback moth eggs

Bertha armyworm larvae caused over twice as much feeding damage on plants with diamondback moth eggs than plants without. However, bertha armyworm egg laying was not affected when canola plants had diamondback moth eggs. Diamondback moth adults migrate to the Prairies on winds from the…

Kochia in soybean

Kochia yield losses can be high

Yield losses caused by kochia competition are high, with mean losses reported to be 68% in grain corn, 62% in sorghum, 52% in soybean, 46% in sugar beet, 40% in silage corn, 23% in sunflower, 20% in spring wheat, 13% in canola and field pea,…

soybean visual response to K fertilizer

Soybean largely unresponsive to K fertilizer in Manitoba

Soybeans were found to be largely unresponsive to potassium (K) fertilizer even on low K-testing soils in Manitoba.  Despite visual K deficiency symptoms mid-season, there were still no yield responses to K fertilizer at varying rates and placements.  The current soil test threshold of 100…

Sainfoin alfalfa plots

Evaluation of sainfoin-alfalfa mixtures and persistence for bloat-safe grazing

Forage dry matter yields of sainfoin-alfalfa mixtures were greater than sainfoin monocultures in all trials. However, sainfoin persistence levels in alfalfa-sainfoin mixtures were less than the recommended level to eliminate ruminant bloat risk. Further agronomic studies on optimum seeding ratios of alfalfa to sainfoin, and…

Sod seeded alfalfa

Assessing zero-till drills for sod-seeding

Sod-seeding alfalfa to rejuvenate perennial grass pastures using currently available zero-till seeding equipment can be a successful option for livestock producers. In the thin Black soil zone of western Canada, alfalfa continued to persist nine years after seeding whether herbicides were used at establishment or…

Canarygrass heads

Correcting chloride deficiency in annual canarygrass

At chloride-responsive sites, Cl– fertilization increased annual canarygrass yield by 70%. However, without Cl– fertilizer, the application of other macro- and micro-nutrients did not provide a yield response at these sites. Additionally, soil testing did not adequately predict Cl– fertilizer response, indicating that Cl- fertilizer…

winter wheat leaf spots

Winter wheat leaf spot control

Using a cultivar with greater disease resistance and applying a fungicide reduced leaf spot diseases in winter wheat. Fungicide application resulted in a 3.3 to 13.2% (2 to 8 bu/ac) yield increase over the untreated check. Leaf spot diseases are commonly seen on winter wheat…

soybean panoramic

Comparing early soybean maturity groups

Environmental factors and location affect soybean phenology, seed yield and seed quality for early maturity groups in northern environments. Baseline environmental and phenological trends with established yield and seed quality components were developed for early maturing soybean that will support the optimization of soybean breeding…

leaf spot wheat

Wheat leaf spots controlled with Fusarium fungicide timing

Research found that foliar fungicide application at early anthesis for Fusarium Head Blight control also provided adequate control of leaf spotting diseases. While leaf spotting diseases were slightly higher at this timing, yields were similar. In years when environmental conditions are favourable, leaf spot disease…

blackleg cotyledon infection

Canola cotyledon wounds contribute to blackleg disease

Mechanical wounds on canola cotyledons, simulating flea beetle feeding, allowed infection of the blackleg pathogen while no infection occurred on un-injured cotyledons. Wounds that were 8 hours or older before inoculation had lower levels of infection. Temperature, leaf wetness and relative humidity also played a…

galls on stinkweed

Integrated management of Clubroot

The application of hydrated lime to bring an acidic soil up to pH 7.2, and/or weed control of cruciferous weeds did not affect clubroot severity on a clubroot resistant variety. The yield of a susceptible canola variety almost doubled with the application of hydrated lime,…

precision canola

Precision planted canola compared to air drills

Under  irrigated and high-precipitation conditions, canola yield from 12 inch narrow-row precision planted canola was 10% higher than canola seeded with a 12 inch row air drill. However, under more water-limited conditions, yield from air drill seeded canola was equal or higher than the precision…

50% DSI

Clubroot yield losses assessed

Yield losses to clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, increased linearly as the Disease Severity Index (DSI) increased. Under greenhouse conditions, an increment of 1% in DSI resulted in a decrease of 0.9% to 1.0% in yield; under field conditions, this percentage was reduced to…

field pea in wheat stubble

Controlling glyphosate-resistant kochia in field pea

Layering Group 14 herbicides saflufenacil or carfentrazone + sulfentrazone pre-plant with a Group 2/6 imazamox/bentazon post-emergent treatment can effectively control glyphosate- and ALS inhibitor-resistant (Group 9 + 2) kochia in field pea. Layering will also help to reduce herbicide selection pressure through the use of…

sclerotinia on lentil

Lentil can be impacted by Sclerotinia white mold

Ten lentil cultivars were found to be susceptible to Sclerotinia white mold and Botrytis grey mold. The highest yields were found on dryland plots at a seeding rate of 16 seeds/ft2. Irrigated plots yielded significantly less, and had significantly higher disease incidence. Sclerotinia white mold,…

flax flowers

Diversified flax rotations improve weed control

A flax rotation that included 3 years of alfalfa with reduced herbicide applications provided similar wild oat and cleaver control as a flax-barley-flax-oat rotation with recommended herbicide applications. Including 2 successive winter cereal crops in a 5 year rotation also improved wild oat control. Wild…

Ultra early wheat plot drill

Canadian spring wheat varieties suited to ultra-early seeded wheat

All  cultivars in spring wheat classes CWRS, CWSWS, CPSR, CWSP and CNHR had similar yields between the 2C and 8C trigger planting temperatures. However, the ultra-early planting date had improved grain yield stability and improved growing system stability. Research from 2015 to 2018 by Collier…

Canarygrass seedheads

Canarygrass response to nitrogen and fungicides

A nitrogen fertilization rate of 44.5 lbs N/ac maximized canarygrass seed yield. Foliar fungicide application increased seed yield by 8.5%, and is important in areas where septoria leaf mottle is prevalent. The fungicide application did not improve the responsiveness of canarygrass to N fertilizer, so…

kochia tumbleweed

Controlling the weed seedbank

Weed control has typically focussed on preventing yield loss with the side benefit of controlling weed seed return to the seedbank. This research proposes to turn that approach on its head by developing an understanding of when weed control is critical to prevent the return…

Botrytis grey mould late season

Controlling Botrytis grey mould in lentil

Botrytis grey mould doesn’t share the same limelight as Anthracnose or Ascochyta blight, but it can be an occasional foliar disease in lentil. Limited research has been conducted on foliar fungicide application timing, but one study in 2002 and 2003 found that a single application…

lentil seedrow

Seedrow starter blend recommendations for lentil and soybean

A rate of no more than 9 lbs. N + 9 lbs. P2O5/ac as a starter seed-row 28-26-0 fertilizer blend was found to be the optimum rate that maximized yield in soybean and lentil. Higher rates reduced emergence and decreased the proportion of nitrogen derived…

Bale grazing

Bale grazing on forage fields leaves short term impacts

In the first season after winter bale grazing, forage yield at the grazing site was reduced by 68% compared to control plots, but no difference in the second season. Residual nitrate-N and Olsen P in the soil were also higher at the centre of the…

Panicle clipping

Wild oat panicle removal investigated as a weed control method

Early  crop topping treatment with a systemic herbicide targeted at panicle emergence had the largest impact on wild oat density, dockage, seedbank, and crop yield in the following year. An early, or a combination of early and late crop topping (at initiation of seed shed),…

seedbed utilization

Seedbed utilization and fungicide timing impacted malt barley production

Fungicide applications at flag leaf emergence and heading growth stages reduced net-blotch severity and increased malt barley grain yield and kernel quality, but early fungicide applications at the 2- to 3-leaf stage generally had a limited impact. Placement of seed with 11 inch shovel openers…

Kochia fenceline

Herbicide-resistant kochia increases rapidly in Manitoba

A randomized-stratified survey of 315 sites in Manitoba found that, overall, 58% of the kochia populations tested were glyphosate-resistant, while 1% were dicamba-resistant. There was a rapid increase in glyphosate-resistant kochia over a five-year time frame, and the survey also confirms the first cases of…

volunteer canola seedling

Controlling volunteer canola in soybean

Action and economic thresholds for volunteer Roundup Ready canola in Roundup Ready soybean were determined. Economic thresholds of less than 0.5 plants/ft2 (<5 plants/m2) highlight the highly competitive nature of volunteer canola in soybean crops. Volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola is a challenge for Roundup Ready…

root rot soybean

Soybean root rots more prevalent on saline soils

Twenty short season soybean cultivars were evaluated for root rot on saline soils. While there were differences among cultivars in tolerance to Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani and different salinity levels, all cultivars were still impacted to varying degrees. The objectives of the research were…

Russian thistle

No herbicide-resistant Russian thistle confirmed in Manitoba

A 2018 survey found that Russian thistle populations collected in Manitoba did not exhibit resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors (tribenuron/thifensulfuron; Group 2), synthetic auxins (2,4-D ester or fluroxypyr; Group 4), or glyphosate (Group 9). The status of herbicide-resistant Russian thistle in Manitoba was unknown, so…

Liming action on the field in spring season

Hydrated lime can help reduce clubroot disease

Research trials found that hydrated lime may be an effective tool for managing clubroot disease in canola when optimal timing and rainfall are achieved. Field and greenhouse trials found hydrated lime more effective than limestone applications, but is much more costly. Clubroot disease, caused by…

barley scald

Flag-leaf timing best for fungicide application in malt barley

For improved leaf disease management and yield in malt barley, fungicide applications should include a flag leaf stage timing or later for adequate protection of upper canopy leaves, which are key contributors to yield and grain filling. A tank-mix of a one-half rate fungicide with…

Blossom blight S. Sclerotiorum

Blossom blight of alfalfa is common in most years

Surveys of alfalfa seed production fields on the Canadian Prairies from 1993 to 2017 demonstrated that epidemics of blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary developed almost every year at some locations. It appears likely that blossom blight continues…

canola in bloom

Multiple genes improve clubroot resistance

Researchers investigated the efficacy and durability of canola lines carrying single and multiple clubroot resistance (CR) genes against ‘new’ and ‘old’ pathogen pathotypes. Stacked CR genes of different modes of action improved resistance and enhanced durability. Cultivar resistance is a cornerstone of clubroot management. Most…

Kochia seedling

Fluroxypyr-resistant kochia confirmed in Alberta

In a 2017 Alberta survey, 13% of the kochia populations sampled were fluroxypyr-resistant. Only 4% of the populations were both fluroxypyr- and dicamba-resistant, indicating that different mechanisms may confer resistance to these herbicides. When combined with estimates of dicamba resistance, about 28% of kochia populations…

Mycosphaerella blight pea

Fungicide control of Mycosphaerella blight in field pea

In 10 of the 13 trials, double-nozzle configurations provided a 15% reduction in disease severity and up to a 60% increase in yield compared to the untreated control. However, droplet size and angle of application had no effect on field pea yield. Moderate water volume…

Dandelion rosette

Managing perennial broadleaf weeds in oat

Combining a post-emergent herbicide application with a subsequent pre-harvest glyphosate application resulted in the best dandelion control. Growers should consult with their oat buyer to ensure that they will accept oats treated with pre-harvest glyphosate. The objective of this study was to determine if cultural…

oat field

Researching pre-harvest glyphosate on oat

Compared to direct combining without pre-harvest glyphosate, research found no effect on oat quality when glyphosate is applied at a seed moisture content at 40% or less. When applied at the recommended seed moisture content of 30%, pre-harvest glyphosate had a similar impact on oat…

plot sprayer

Target the flag leaf or early anthesis for leaf spot disease control in spring wheat

The most profitable practices were applications of propiconazole (Tilt 250E0), benzovindiflupyr and azoxystrobin (Trivapro A+B) at BBCH 39-45 (flag leaf) or prothioconazole and tebuconazole (Prosaro XTR) at BBCH 61-63 (early anthesis) —  when environmental conditions were conducive for disease development. The objective of this study…

Ducks pond

Broadcast phosphorus increased snowmelt runoff losses

Applying monoammonium phosphate fertilizer using broadcast without incorporation, especially at rates above that normally recommended for a single season, is not recommended due to the increased potential for P export offsite in spring snowmelt runoff. Phosphorus from non-point sources such as snowmelt runoff is a…

stinkweed rosette

Herbicide-resistant weeds continue to increase

Weed surveys show that the incidence of herbicide-resistant grassy and broadleaf weeds continues to increase across the Prairies during the survey periods of 2014 through 2017. The perceived cost of herbicide resistance was estimated at $13.36 per acre. Regular surveillance for herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds has…

foliar P plots

Seed-placed phosphate outperforms foliar applications

In this study, foliar phosphorus (P) application was unable to substitute for seed-placed P. Overall, foliar P had a marginal effect on grain yield, P uptake and seed nutritional value. Generally, little research has been conducted in western Canada to assess the potential of foliar-applied…

kochia seedling

Use herbicide mixtures for glyphosate-resistant kochia control in chemfallow

Control of glyphosate-resistant kochia was achieved with the use of effective tank-mixtures utilizing Group 4, 14 or 4+19 herbicide groups. But the confirmation of Group 4 resistance in kochia highlights the need for careful herbicide stewardship to prevent further selection of multiple herbicide-resistant kochia. In…

Spray nozzle ES

Sprayable elemental sulphur has potential

A sprayable micronized elemental sulphur fertilizer applied prior to seeding showed potential for correcting nutrient deficiencies in canola compared to application of ammonium sulphate fertilizer. However, not even ammonium sulphate resulted in a significant difference in yield due to constraints of dry or excessively wet…

kochia spring wheat

Glyphosate-resistant kochia control in spring wheat

The most effective and consistent treatments for glyphosate-resistant (GR) kochia management included Authority (sulfentrazone) applied pre-emergence, post-emergent Enforcer D (fluroxypyr/bromoxynil/2,4-D) at the high label rate, and post-emergent Infinity (pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil). Glyphosate-resistant (Group 9) kochia has rapidly spread across Alberta since it was first discovered in 2011…

soybean r1

Controlling Roundup Ready volunteer canola in Roundup Ready soybean

All 15 PRE followed by POST herbicide combinations provided better control of volunteer canola compared with the glyphosate-only control, but tribenuron (i.e. Express SG) followed by bentazon, and tribenuron followed by imazamox plus bentazon (i.e. Viper ADV) provided solutions that were low cost, registered in…

seedling canola

Target 6 to 7 canola plants per square foot

A meta-analysis of canola yield response to plant densities found that the economic optimal canola plant stand is 6 to 7 plants per square foot assuming recent 3 year average hybrid seed cost of $11.84/lbs., and farmgate canola price of $10.22/bu, hybrid seed size of…

seedling canola

Good canola establishment with narrow-row planter

For this study conducted in southern Alberta on irrigated and dryland plots, the precision planter with 12 inch spacing increased seedling emergence and plant stand density compared to an air drill on 12-inch spacing or precision planter with 20 inch spacing — as long as…

ultra early seeding wheat

Higher, more stable yield with ultra-early seeded wheat

Seed wheat as soon as feasible after soil temperatures reach 0C, and prior to soils reaching 7.5–10C, with an optimal seeding rate of 40 seeds/ft2, and at a shallow seeding depth. Ultra-early seeded wheat increased grain yield and stability compared to current seeding practices. Using…

blackleg field

Foliar fungicide not recommended for blackleg-resistant canola

Application of foliar fungicides at the 2 to 4 leaf stage reduced blackleg disease incidence and severity, and improved yield on the susceptible Westar canola cultivar. On two resistant cultivars, however, this fungicide treatment reduced the disease but showed no yield benefit. Since resistant canola…

Alfalfa weevil larvae

Alfalfa weevil and its parasitoids

The alfalfa weevil increased from a minor pest in 2001 to be the principal insect pest of alfalfa in 2014. Its biological control agent Bathyplectes curculionis, a parasitoid wasp, now also occurs in most areas where alfalfa weevil is found on the Canadian Prairies. The…

Conserva Pak seeding

Wider row spacing may be possible in wheat

Wider row spacing in wheat is possible – up to 16 inches – but producers need to monitor their plant density to ensure they are reaching an adequate stand establishment to achieve optimum yield, especially since all seeding equipment may not maintain separation of seed…

Mature oat heads

Impact of seed size and seeding depth on barley and oat production

Large seed and shallow seeding independently improved organic barley and oat production. In organic production, pre-seeding tillage is an important weed management strategy, however this can cause drier seeding conditions. To compensate, greater seeding depths are often used, which may reduce crop performance. A 2-year…

RR soybean kochia

Controlling glyphosate/dicamba resistant kochia in soybean

Effective pre-emergent or pre-emergent followed by post-emergent (two-pass) programs tested in this research on the U.S Great Plains should be proactively utilized by growers to manage glyphosate/dicamba resistant kochia in Roundup Ready 2 Xtend (glyphosate/dicamba-resistant) soybean. A similar approach may prove useful for western Canadian…

Delia root maggot

Root maggot impacts on canola were minor

Research showed no reduction of seed yield for Brassica napus canola at any infestation level of flies or eggs. Root maggots may be more of a perceived than real threat to Prairie canola producers. Recent wet field seasons across much of the Prairie provinces have…

soybean vegetative

Environment has bigger impact than soybean seeding date

Up to 90% of total variation in soybean yield and quality was explained by environment, seeding date, cultivar and their interactions, with environment often responsible for the majority of the response. Overall, very late seeding reduced yield, seed weight, and oil but did not affect…

Fusarium root rot soybean

Fungicide seed treatments reduce root rot of soybean

All of the fungicides and fungicide mixtures tested in field experiments reduced root rot in Fusarium infected soybean seedlings. Varieties were identified that could be used in plant breeding programs to develop Fusarium-resistant varieties. The potential for growing soybean in southern Alberta has increased with…

sod drill

Pasture rejuvenation with bloat-free legumes

Direct seeding of productive and nutritive legume species into existing pasture is considered the most attractive option for pasture rejuvenation. For high performance grazing systems, identification of suitable bloat-free legumes and methods for direct seeding into old grass and legume stands will be essential strategies….

riparian pond

Impact of vegetated filter strips on phosphorus surface runoff varied

Vegetative filter strips, or buffers, were effective at retaining phosphorus after a runoff event during the growing season but not in the spring or fall outside the growing season. The findings of this study suggest that vegetative filter strips are inconsistent and not likely to…

wireworms

Broflanilide insecticide controls wireworms

Broflanilide provided consistent protection against wireworm damage in wheat, and also reduced neonate and resident wireworm populations at levels similar to the deregistered lindane but at a far lower dosage per acre. Wireworm has remerged as an insect pest in cereals, corn, potato, and vegetables…

soybean vegetative

Soybeans unresponsive to starter N

Starter nitrogen (N) up to 75 lbs. N/ac broadcast and incorporated before planting a Maturity Group 00 soybean cultivar found no differences in biomass, grain protein, or oil content. There was no yield response for treatments receiving starter N fertilizer relative to the unfertilized control…

wheat stubble

Pre-seed glyphosate application had little impact on wheat rhizobacterial communities

After seven years of pre-seed glyphosate application in a wheat-wheat or wheat-pea rotation, in min-till or no-till, there were few effects on the wheat rhizobacterial communities. Due to widespread adoption of no-till management and use of glyphosate-resistant transgenic crops, glyphosate is the most widely used…

Drone

Future technologies in disease control

“The agriculture industry in North America will take the first steps towards a dramatic change of direction during the next decade. The much anticipated shift to autonomous field equipment will eliminate the need for the enormous and expensive pieces of farming equipment currently used for…

Wheat heads

In-crop N application to wheat

[Editorial Note: This 26-site research study was conducted across the Prairies 20 years ago, but results and lessons learned are still applicable today.] In-crop application of 14 lbs. N/ac of broadcast ammonium nitrate or foliar-applied UAN were generally equally effective at increasing grain protein content…

blackleg cankers

Blackleg yield loss in resistant canola

Yield losses increased from 18% to 99% in the hybrid canola ‘73-15RR’ and 26% to 86% in hybrid ‘1950RR’ when disease severity rose from 2 to 5 compared with plants with severities of 0–1. Understanding the yield loss relationship with blackleg severity will help agronomists…

clubroot plots

Researching clubroot management practices

Research conducted over the past decade set the foundation for today’s clubroot management practices. This research covered the potential of biofungicides/fungicides, cultivar resistance, and crop rotation for management of clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae. Synthetic fungicides ineffective The fungicides Allegro and Omega (fluazinam) and…

Niger flower with bee

Niger response to nitrogen and seeding depth

Niger grain yield increased linearly by 18% with increasing nitrogen rates. Seeding depths down to one inch (2.5 cm) allowed placement of seed into soil moisture to support emergence and optimize yield. Niger is an open-pollinated oilseed crop, and was domesticated in Ethiopia. While niger…

Fusarium root rot

Fusarium pathogens that cause root rot identified

Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi and F. avenaceum were the most aggressive species on CDC Meadow pea. Both F. solani f. sp. pisi and F. avenaceum caused significant disease symptoms on pea, chickpea, dry bean, and faba bean, but not on cereal crops, soybean, green…

composting

Short term legacy effects of feedlot manure

Research was conducted in southern Alberta to look at the effects of long term feedlot manure application on irrigated barley yield, macronutrient supply, earthworm abundance, and water extractable carbon in a clay loam soil. Two to 3 years after manure application was stopped, barley silage…

triple shoot

Placement outside the seed row is fine for phosphate

Placing phosphate fertilizer in the seed row has its challenges because seed damage can occur at fairly low rates. Rather than short the crop with a low seed-placed rate, this study found that the full recommended rate placed outside the seed row is the better…

Redekop cage mill

Cage mill system provides Harvest Weed Seed Control

Redekop Seed Control Unit, an integrated reversible cage mill with blade system that provides Harvest Weed Seed Control, was assessed for volunteer canola control. Blade configuration in combination with chaff feeding rate did not affect volunteer canola control, which remained above 99%. Harvest Weed Seed…

sticky card

Tips for a more integrated approach to flea beetle control

This study validated the nominal economic threshold of 25 per cent defoliation. It also determined significant associations between landscape structure and flea beetle abundance, weather and flea beetle abundance, and plant density and flea beetle damage. As well, two flea beetle predators were confirmed. Flea…

Grain Guard heater

Defining Best Management Practices for Using Supplemental Heating with Natural Air Drying

Overall, supplemental heating for natural air drying (NAD) systems does have the potential to be a lower capital alternative to heated air drying to extend the drying season; however, careful management is required to keep operating costs comparable to that of a dedicated dryer system….

straight cut canola

Pre-harvest herbicide and desiccation options for straight-combining canola

While applying a pre-harvest or desiccant frequently provided drydown benefits in straight-cut canola, not applying a pre-harvest herbicide or desiccant should be considered a potentially viable option, especially for early seeded, reasonably uniform and weed free fields where a hybrid with good pod shatter tolerance…

banding N

Band nitrogen to reduce losses, improve NUE

This one-year study supports previous recommendations that in-soil banding of nitrogen fertilizers during seeding or near to the time of seeding is a best management practice to enhance nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Increasing farm size in western Canada has led many farmers to move back…

blackleg canola stem

The science behind blackleg resistance rotation

SaskCanola administered Growing Forward 2-funded blackleg research projects that concluded over the past year or so. Results from these studies make it possible for farmers to test for the predominant blackleg races in a field and use this information to make strategic decisions for the…

wild oat in lentil

Wild oat panicle clipping could become a weed management tool

Based on wild oat seed viability, early clipping of wild oat panicles before seeds are viable, in short-statured crops, may become a valuable tool for integrated wild oat management. Wild oat is one of the most problematic weed species in western Canada due to widespread…

cultivator

Heavy tillage on moist fields increases compaction, reduces yield

Heavy tillage
 can increase soil compaction, reduce soil strength
 and reduce
 canola yields, especially when carried out under higher moisture conditions and in the spring, prior
 to planting. Excessive precipitation and limited drying weather around the time of various field operations (ex. seeding, input application…

black medic

Black medic cover crop improves soil stability

Generally, a black medic cover crop reduced the proportion of small aggregates and increased the proportion of large aggregates. Medic offers a natural way to maintain soil health in low external input cropping systems. Black medic is a self-regenerating cover crop that grows under the…

Leaves of a common cleavers plant, Galium aparine

Use pre-seed and pre-harvest herbicides for cleavers control

Cleavers can germinate very early in the spring, making pre-seed burnoff a good way to control 
the weeds when they’re small and limit cleavers 
seed in harvested canola. Pre-harvest saflufenacil plus glyphosate may also provide short- and long-term management. This study shows that cleavers populations…

seedling canola

Foliar-applied P can help with in-season deficiency

While this Saskatchewan study did show a yield response for foliar-applied phosphorus (P) when compared to a control without any P fertilizer, the best practice is still to meet crop needs with fertilizer applications before or at the time of seeding. This study evaluated the…

wheat fertigation

Fertigation of wheat and canola

In canola, the net return with the full rate of nitrogen side-banded at seeding was always greater than the same rate split-applied as side-banded N and fertigation. In HRSW spring wheat, late-season in-crop applications of N by fertigation could be used to boost grain protein,…

downy brome

Evaluating downy and Japanese brome control

Fluazifop, quizalofop, clethodim, sethoxydim, and glyphosate can all reduce downy brome and Japanese brome biomass, especially when applied shortly after germination to plants less than 4.3 inches tall —with a tendency for fluazifop and quizalofop to be most effective. Research evaluated the efficacy of glyphosate…

Lodged barley

PGRs on malt barley

Overall, all PGRs reduced lodging in some site-years on CDC Copeland malt barley. Moddus showed the largest reduction in lodging followed by Ethrel, although the Ethrel response was not consistent. Manipulator affect on lodging was inconsistent and quite minor in reducing lodging. None are recommended…

soybean vegetative

Critical weed-free period for soybean

Soybean grown in narrow rows shortened the critical weed-free period (CWFP) by up to three soybean developmental stages at site-years with increased weed pressure. Low-density soybean stands lengthened the CWFP by one soybean developmental stage compared with higher-density soybean stands. Generally, the cultivar with the…

flax close-up

Integrated practices improve weed control in flax

Seeding a tall cultivar at 80 seeds/ft2 in early May along with the application of an in-crop wild oat herbicide resulted in the greatest stand establishment and crop biomass, as well as the lowest weed biomass in flax. Flax is a poor competitor with weeds,…

Canola flower midge

Research continues into possible economic significance of new Canola Flower Midge

A new species of gall midge, Contarinia brassicola Sinclair (canola flower midge), was identified on the Canadian Prairies in 2017. To date, economic injury to canola has been low, and research has found early seeded canola had higher feeding damage, but still produced optimum yield….

Fusarium Roor Rot Soybean

Fusarium root rot management in soybean

Eight of nine fungicides tested helped to manage Fusarium root rot in soybeans in Alberta. Several soybean varieties were identified with partial resistance to Fusarium root rot. Root rot caused by Fusarium spp. is prevalent in soybean crops in Alberta. The objectives of this study…

root rot

Identification and management of root rot of pulses

Research on root rot diseases of pulse crops is summarized to provide a brief description of the important pathogens and their management. In addition to existing tools such as seed treatment, crop rotation, and early, shallow seeding to manage root rot risk in the short…

AC Sierra

Assessing sunflower seeding and N rate

An optimum seeding rate between 30,000 and 35,000 seeds/ac for hybrid 63A21 sunflower, and between 40,000 and 45,000 seeds/ac for open-pollinated AC Sierra was determined under no-till cropping systems in Saskatchewan. At N fertilizer prices of around $0.50/lbs., the recommended N fertilizer rate based on…

milling oat trial

Maintaining test weight in milling oats

Seeding early should increase the likelihood of harvesting quality grain before weathering, but this did not guarantee higher yields or higher test weights. Generally, 71 lbs. N/ac resulted in optimum test weights and often produced optimum economic returns. Selecting a variety with genetics for high…

seedling pea

Pea oat intercrop has potential

Intercropping may be beneficial when the desired crop is field pea, with potential contributions to weed suppression and reductions in lodging. There was no indication of a yield advantage to intercropping peas and oats. If profitability can be derived from reductions in in-crop herbicide use,…

blackleg cotyledon scale

Fluopyram fungicide seed treatment reduces blackleg

Several fungicides were evaluated for control of cotyledon infection by Leptosphaeria maculans and blackleg disease of canola. Under controlled environmental conditions, fluopyram showed greater efficacy than fluquinconazole in limiting cotyledon infection, while regular seed treatments with Prosper EverGold or Helix Vibrance were ineffective. In field…

faba bean nodules

Pulse crops differ in nitrogen fixation dynamics

The research suggests that improving pulse nitrogen fixation by targeting an increase in nodule numbers and nodule biomass could help improve long term cropping sustainability and reduce reliance on inorganic N fertilizer. In addition, developing pulse varieties with improved water-stress tolerance may improve the N-fixation…

direct seeding

Farming without glyphosate

Model predictions suggest that farming can remain profitable without glyphosate by consistently utilizing key non-herbicidal weed management practices combined with robust pre-emergence soil residual herbicide treatments. However, maintaining low weed seed banks will be challenging. The possibility of farming without glyphosate is an important issue…

stripe rust

Wheat and barley response to stripe rust and fungicides

When stripe rust severity was low, resistant and intermediate wheat and barley varieties did not suffer significant yield losses. When leaf spot and stripe rust disease levels were high, a foliar fungicide application was necessary to reduce yield losses even on resistant varieties. Seven spring…

ripe oat

Maximizing economic return in oats

A nitrogen fertilizer rate of 89 lbs. N/ac provided the most consistent economic returns when oat prices were between $2.50 and $3.00 per bushel. Fungicide application did not provide a benefit at any N application rate. In an effort to maximize yield and quality, some…

wild oat

Trends in global herbicide resistance management

Trends in herbicide resistance management over the past decade were identified and include renewed efforts by the agrichemical industry in herbicide discovery, cultivation of crops with combined (stacked) HR traits, increasing reliance on pre-emergence vs. post-emergence herbicides, breeding for weed-competitive crop cultivars, expansion of harvest…

soybean volunteer canola

Management of volunteer glyphosate-resistant canola in glyphosate-resistant soybeans

Target a soybean seeding rate of 4 to 6 plants per square foot for optimum net return and improved crop competition against volunteer glyphosate-resistant canola. Pre- and post-emergent herbicides were also assessed for control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant canola in soybean. Limited information exists for the…

Resistant vs. Susceptible

Reduce clubroot spore load by 95%

A ≥2 year break from clubroot-resistant canola resulted in a 95% decrease in clubroot resting spore concentrations. In the third year after the harvest of clubroot-resistant canola, resting spore concentrations were similar to those of host-free control plots. Previous small plot research showed the value…

2635 vertical tillage

Vertical tillage no more effective than managing crop residue with the combine

Managing flax residue with vertical tillage, tandem disc, or rake and burn did not produce significantly higher yield for three subsequent wheat, pea and canola crops than chopping and spreading straw with the combine. Limited differences in soil attributes were observed, and they were diminished…

kochia

Glyphosate-resistant kochia seed loses 90% viability in less than 1 year

Time to 90% loss of glyphosate-resistant kochia seed viability averaged less than 8 months. Short seedbank longevity, delayed and reduced germination, and delayed time to first leaf of glyphosate-resistant kochia can be used to develop weed control strategies. Kochia herbicide resistance continues to spread across…

Hwang canola clubroot rotation

Three-year break increased canola yield by 18 bushels per acre

Canola yield with a three-year break between canola crops was significantly higher than a tighter canola-barley rotation by 18 bushels per acre. Growing clubroot resistant canola in a tight rotation was not a strategy that could be implemented to keep clubroot spore populations low, and…

Lentil close-up

Seedrow starter fertilizer for pulses

Sensitivity of pulse crops to seedrow placed nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer products was lentil > pea ~ chickpea > soybean ~ black bean > faba bean. Overall and under good moisture conditions, a maximum of 10 kg N/ha rate as starter in the seedrow…

Pollinator

Pollinators increase yield and mitigate drought impacts

Pollinators increased yield by promoting earlier flowering and reducing loss associated with drought. However, pollinators were unable to compensate for suboptimal seeding rate or low nitrogen fertility. Get more bang for your buzz. This project consisted of three experiments that investigated whether pollinators could help…

combining

Understand the limitations of combine grain-loss monitors

Existing combine grain loss monitors could not be correlated to an actual grain loss measurement. However they did provide an indication if grain loss was increasing or decreasing with different feed rates. You can’t manage what you can’t measure. That adage from the business world…

seedling canola

Optimal canola seeding rate based on seed size

This study compared three canola seeding rates (5, 10 and 15 seeds per square foot) with small and large seed
size lots from two different hybrids. 
It concluded that the most economic and least risky seeding rate to achieve adequate plant stand population is about 10…

clubroot tour

Clubroot nursery proved invaluable

The maintenance of a naturally occurring clubroot nursery provided an evaluation site for over 60 canola lines, varieties and cultivars over 4 years in southern Alberta. The nursery site was also used extensively for training and extension activities. When you get served lemons, make lemonade….

Clubroot galls

Keeping an eye on clubroot

A set of clubroot surveillance practices was developed for effective monitoring of the occurrence and severity of Plasmodiophora brassicae in commercial fields. Clubroot, we’re watching you. A major focus of research into clubroot disease caused by P. brassicae is surveillance of the geographic spread of…

sclerotinia on a canola leaf

New tool forecasts Sclerotinia risk

The canola growth stage prediction model and sclerotinia stem risk index deployed on www.canoladst.ca are useful tools for managing the disease. The major objectives of this project were to develop and deploy forecasting tools for canola growth stages, sclerotinia stem rot risk model, and a…

white mould on dry bean

Tests to improve Sclerotinia sclerotiorum control

Heads Up, a resistance activator applied to seed, was found to enhance resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing white mould in dry bean, but showed no benefit in canola. Adding a micronutrient to a foliar fungicide improved control of S. sclerotiorum with two of the eight…

seedling flax

Flax response to N and P fertilizer

On sites testing low in nitrogen (N) fertility, flax yields were 39% higher with rates of 90 lbs. N side-banded per acre. Flax response to phosphorus (P) averaged 7% and rates of no more than 18 to 36 side-banded P2O5 per acre were justified. Phosphorus…

grain bagging

Storing tough and damp canola in grain bags

Dry canola seeds can be safely stored for up to 6 to 8 months in grain bags, but 12% moisture canola should only be stored for less than 5 months. Canola seeds above 12% moisture content should only be stored for 3 to 4 weeks…

unloading wheat

Building phosphorus fertility

Over six years the highest wheat yields were achieved where a medium-high soil phosphorus (P) level (15 ppm) was achieved with an initial broadcast application of 327 pounds P2O5 per acre. On soils with very low P fertility, yields were four to five bushels lower…

P banding

4R management of phosphorus fertilizer

To achieve 4R principles, placing ammonium phosphate fertilizer in a band, in or near the seed-row, at the time of seeding and at a rate that matches P removal by the crop generally provides the greatest P efficiency, long-term sustainability, and environmental protection for small…

red lentil plots

Agronomic practices for red lentil in Alberta

High lentil productivity was attained in all major soil zones and agroclimatic zones in Alberta. Plant stand density, inoculation, nitrogen management, and weed control recommendations were found to be similar to Saskatchewan. Field trials were conducted at five locations over four years from 2012 through…

Spray pea stubble

Stubble options for winter wheat

Barley silage and pea stubbles were identified as high-yielding alternatives with higher protein and greater stability compared to canola stubble in the Black soil zone. Barley grain stubble was identified as intermediate stubble option while oat stubble was a poor option. Research was conducted to…

ww seeding

Nitrogen management strategies for winter wheat

Split applications of N usually provided the maximum yield and protein, particularly with Agrotain or SuperU. This study consisted of two experiments each conducted at five sites across western Canada at Brandon, Manitoba, Hallonquist (south of Swift Current), Saskatchewan, and Lethbridge and Lacombe, Alberta to…

ww stand establishment

Winter wheat stand establishment strategies

Two research studies investigated best management practices for winter wheat stand establishment at 26 sites over three years across western Canada. A strong, integrated agronomic system with high seed rate near 40 plants per square foot, a dual fungicide/insecticide seed treatment, and vigorous seed provided…

Resistant kochia

Triple herbicide-resistant kochia control

A kochia survey in southern Alberta in 2017 found that all kochia populations were resistant to Group 2 ALS inhibitors, 50% of populations were resistant to Group 9 glyphosate, and 18% of populations resistant to Group 4 (dicamba) herbicides. Kochia populations with triple resistance to…

AC Saltlander foxtail barley

Control foxtail barley and downy brome on saline soils

Where the saline forage site contained root zone salinity approaching severe, the best forage control treatments were AC Saltlander green wheatgrass seeded on 15 or 30.5 cm row spacing. The next best option was alternating rows of AC Saltlander green wheatgrass with slender wheatgrass seeded…

assessing flax

Assessing flax tolerance to new herbicides

Of the seven unregistered herbicides assessed, flax has excellent crop tolerance to fluthiacet-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone. Flumioxazin caused severe crop damage in high moisture situations and is not recommended for further trials. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the Kernen Research Farm…

oat leaf blotch

Breeding for oat leaf blotch resistance

A 4-year research project at the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre set the platform that will assist plant breeders in developing leaf blotch resistant oat varieties. Growing resistant varieties in combination with adequate crop rotation intervals will be the most effective, economical and eco-friendly…

frost damage varieties

Frost tolerance of faba bean varieties

Tannin-containing faba bean varieties had less frost-damaged seed after a frost event compared to zero-tannin varieties. Yield and Thousand Seed Weight (TSW) declined with increasing frost damage for both variety types. Ten faba bean varieties were assessed after a frost event that occurred during the…

Russian thistle

Group 2 resistant Russian thistle increasing

Of 45 Russian thistle populations tested from central and southern Alberta in 2017, 31 (62%) were Group 2 (ALS inhibitor) resistant. No populations exhibited resistance to Group 9 (glyphosate). A random survey of Russian thistle was conducted post-harvest in fall, 2017. A total of 45…

Clubroot galls

Evaluation of clubroot disinfectants

Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) was most effective in killing clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) spores at concentrations above 1.7%. Spray Nine was almost as effective, while 5 other products achieved greater than 95% control. Sanitation of equipment, vehicles, scouting tools and footwear is an important part of preventing…

Oat seed size trial

Large oat seed improves emergence, vigour and yield

Seeding large seeded oats improved early season oat biomass by 16% and 29% at two locations in eastern Saskatchewan. Large seeded oats also improved wild oat competition and resulted in 4 days earlier maturity. Yield was 8% higher at one site with large seed. Field…

soybean phospphorus plots

Phosphorus management for Saskatchewan soybeans

Seed-placed rates of up to 35 lbs. P2O5 per acre (40 kg P2O5/ha) were safe across a wide range of conditions. However, seedrow safety was hard to predict, so sideband is still the preferred method for high P application rates. When soil test P levels…

Sask Soybean N

Nitrogen management options for Saskatchewan soybeans

On land without a history of soybeans, dual inoculant provided a 24% yield benefit with an overall yield increase of 7 bu./acre (500 kg/ha). Starter N provided little yield benefit when good N-fixation was achieved. In-season N application could be used to rescue a poorly…

Inter-row pea

Inter-row seeding into wheat stubble improves field pea standability

Inter-row seeding field pea into 8 to 12 inch (20 to 30 cm) tall wheat stubble significantly improved standability between 6 to 23% when lodging occurred, and would be a low cost method of improving pea harvestability. The three plant growth regulators compared were of…

downy brome

Controlling Japanese and downy brome

Field trials found pyroxasulfone (Focus), pyroxasulfone + flumioxazin (Fierce), and pyroxsulam (Simplicity) provided effective control of Japanese and downy brome in winter wheat. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, over three growing seasons to compare herbicides for control of downy…

Lentil field

Replace fallow with pulses to improve water- and N-use efficiency

In a 3-year crop rotation, replacing summerfallow with a pulse crop increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 51%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33%. A 3-year crop sequence study was repeated five times (five cycles) from 2005 to 2011 at…

wheat stem sawfly and Bracon cephi

Reduce wheat stem sawfly impact with lower seeding rate in solid-stemmed wheat

Seed solid-stemmed CWRS and CNHR wheat varieties at 30 to 35 seeds per square foot to maximize stem solidness and reduce the impact of wheat stem sawfly. For hollow-stemmed CWRS varieties and durum wheat, seed at 40 to 45 seeds per square foot. Growing solid-stemmed…

R. solani disease ratings

Soybean disease reaction and yield loss to Rhizoctonia solani

Seedling blight and root rot in soil-inoculated Rhizoctonia solani plots decreased soybean stand establishment by 48% and reduced yield by 52% compared to control plots with low levels of R. solani. No significant differences in disease severity, nodulation or yield loss were observed among the…

Cabbage seedpod weevil flower

Impact of cabbage seedpod weevil control on Lygus bug

Research in southern Alberta found that canola fields seeded in April were the most susceptible to cabbage seedpod weevil. A new action threshold of 25 to 40 cabbage seedpod weevils per 10 sweeps at early flowering stage was developed. When cabbage seedpod weevil populations were…

Wild oat head

Over 50% of Alberta fields have herbicide resistant wild oats

Wild oat resistance has increased over three surveys conducted since 2001. In surveyed fields where wild oats were found, Group 1 wild oat resistance increased in Alberta from 11% in 2001 to 58% in 2017. In 2017, 247 fields were randomly surveyed across Alberta prior…

lygus bug on faba bean pod copy

Faba bean seed damage by lygus bug and chocolate spot

Lygus bug and chocolate spot disease can damage faba bean seed. Research found both organisms are widespread in central and southern Alberta. Seed damage occurs independently of each other, and is primarily caused by lygus bug. Seed damage caused by lygus bug (Lygus spp.) or…

clubroot canola roots

Clubroot spore load reduced by 90% with a two-year canola break

A break from susceptible canola of at least 2 years resulted in more than 90% reduction in clubroot pathogen resting spores compared to continuous canola or a 1-year break. Clubroot resistant varieties grown with a 2- to 4-year break yielded 32 to 76% higher than…

wild oat panicles

Triallate-resistant wild oats also cross resistant to four other Groups

Herbicide screening studies on triallate-resistant (Group 8) wild oats found cross-resistance to Group 1 and Group 2 herbicides. Additionally, unexpected resistance to Group 14 and Group 15 herbicides was found even though the wild oats had never been previously exposed to these herbicides. Two relatively…

alfalfa bales

Higher wheat and canola yield after two years of legume forages

Wheat yield was up to 45% higher after two years of alfalfa and up to 60% higher after two years of red clover compared to barley-flax rotations. The yield advantage carried over into the second year with up to 55% higher canola yield after the…

Lentil field

Apply Clearfield lentil herbicides at the five to six node stage

The critical weed free period for lentil starts at the five-node stage and lasts until the 10-node stage. Research found that applying Clearfield herbicides to lentils at the five- to six-node stage provided the best weed control and highest yield. Two research studies conducted at…

Lentil close up

Nitrogen fixation varies between and within pulse crops

At Swift Current, Saskatchewan, faba beans fixed 60 pounds of nitrogen (N) per acre followed by field pea at almost 50 lbs., chickpea at 46 lbs., lentil at 44 lbs., and dry bean lagging behind at 8.3 lbs. But there were varietal differences within each…

severe blackleg in canola field

Blackleg severity and yield loss in canola

For every 1-unit increase in disease severity rating on a scale of 1 to 5, yield loss in a susceptible variety was 17.2% and pod loss was 13.0%. Disease severity was lower and seed yield was 120% to 128% higher in the moderately resistant to…

mature pea field

Higher canola and wheat yields with diverse rotations

Averaged over 6 years from 2010 to 2015, growing canola in rotation with other crops produced 19.4% (9.4 bu/ac) higher yield over continuous canola. Wheat yields were 4.7 bu/ac (7.2%) higher than continuous wheat. When a rotation included pea once every three years, a saving…

feed barley plots

9.3% higher feed barley yield with advanced agronomic practices

Research in Alberta found that advanced agronomic practices, including supplemental post-emergent nitrogen (N) fertilizer, a growth regulator, and dual foliar fungicide applications, contributed to higher feed barley yield when growing season precipitation was not limiting. Combined, the advanced agronomic practices produced an average of 9.3%…

wild oat in tame oat

Improving tame oat competitiveness with wild oat

Seed 35 seeds per square foot and apply at least 13.4 lbs. P205 per acre to improve wild oat competitiveness and increase tame oat yield. A three-year study was conducted at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Indian Head to determine if side-banded phosphorus (P) in combination…

combine wheat header

Diverse crop rotations return up to $45 per acre more

Diverse crop rotations had similar net returns to canola-wheat rotations one-half the time and up to $45 per acre more the rest of the time. Adding integrated weed management practices without relying on wild oat herbicides resulted in similar wild oat pressure as canola-wheat rotations….

wheat stem sawfly larvae

Wheat stem sawfly control in durum wheat

Seed at least 40 seeds per square foot (400 seeds per metre square) for optimum yield and wheat stem sawfly management when growing solid- or hollow-stemmed durum wheat varieties. The foundation for reducing yield loss from wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus) in wheat varieties is…

mature soybean

Assessing soybean rotational benefits

Soybeans provide similar rotational benefits as pea and lentil on subsequent wheat and canola crops – but keep an eye on phosphorus fertility. Nutrient uptake, removal and rotational benefits have been frequently studied for pea and lentil in western Canada. Research at the University of…

Mature peas

Reduce nitrogen fertilizer by 25% with pulses in rotation

Maintain canola and malt barley yield and quality with 25% less nitrogen (N) fertilizer with pulses in rotation. A three year study at seven locations in western Canada looked at the impact of crop rotation and nitrogen rate on canola and malt barley yield and…

wild oat

Our Top 10 herbicide-resistant weed management practices

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research scientists Hugh J. Beckie and K Neil Harker identified herbicide-resistant weed management practices that have the most impact on managing herbicide selection pressure. Their top 10 management practices are based on research and growers’ experiences over the last 30 years.

canola field blooming

Up to 32% higher yield with uniform canola stand establishment

Spatially uniform plant stands increased canola yield by up to 32 per cent at low-yielding sites and by up to 21 per cent at high yielding sites compared to non-uniform plant stands. Research by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research scientist Yantai Gan shows the importance…

clubroot galls

Basamid fumigant is a potential tool for clubroot control

Basamid (dazomet) soil-applied fumigant was effective against clubroot and seedling blight in canola. Basamid appears to have good potential as a tool to maintain canola yield and reduce the spread of clubroot where the disease is concentrated, usually at field entrances. Clubroot, caused by the…

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