Agronomy

oat field

Researching pre-harvest glyphosate on oat

Compared to direct combining without pre-harvest glyphosate, research found no effect on oat quality when glyphosate is applied at a seed moisture content at 40% or less. When applied at the recommended seed moisture content of 30%, pre-harvest glyphosate had a similar impact on oat…

seedling canola

Target 6 to 7 canola plants per square foot

A meta-analysis of canola yield response to plant densities found that the economic optimal canola plant stand is 6 to 7 plants per square foot assuming recent 3 year average hybrid seed cost of $11.84/lbs., and farmgate canola price of $10.22/bu, hybrid seed size of…

seedling canola

Good canola establishment with narrow-row planter

For this study conducted in southern Alberta on irrigated and dryland plots, the precision planter with 12 inch spacing increased seedling emergence and plant stand density compared to an air drill on 12-inch spacing or precision planter with 20 inch spacing — as long as…

ultra early seeding wheat

Higher, more stable yield with ultra-early seeded wheat

Seed wheat as soon as feasible after soil temperatures reach 0C, and prior to soils reaching 7.5–10C, with an optimal seeding rate of 40 seeds/ft2, and at a shallow seeding depth. Ultra-early seeded wheat increased grain yield and stability compared to current seeding practices. Using…

Conserva Pak seeding

Wider row spacing may be possible in wheat

Wider row spacing in wheat is possible – up to 16 inches – but producers need to monitor their plant density to ensure they are reaching an adequate stand establishment to achieve optimum yield, especially since all seeding equipment may not maintain separation of seed…

Mature oat heads

Impact of seed size and seeding depth on barley and oat production

Large seed and shallow seeding independently improved organic barley and oat production. In organic production, pre-seeding tillage is an important weed management strategy, however this can cause drier seeding conditions. To compensate, greater seeding depths are often used, which may reduce crop performance. A 2-year…

soybean vegetative

Environment has bigger impact than soybean seeding date

Up to 90% of total variation in soybean yield and quality was explained by environment, seeding date, cultivar and their interactions, with environment often responsible for the majority of the response. Overall, very late seeding reduced yield, seed weight, and oil but did not affect…

sod drill

Pasture rejuvenation with bloat-free legumes

Direct seeding of productive and nutritive legume species into existing pasture is considered the most attractive option for pasture rejuvenation. For high performance grazing systems, identification of suitable bloat-free legumes and methods for direct seeding into old grass and legume stands will be essential strategies….

Niger flower with bee

Niger response to nitrogen and seeding depth

Niger grain yield increased linearly by 18% with increasing nitrogen rates. Seeding depths down to one inch (2.5 cm) allowed placement of seed into soil moisture to support emergence and optimize yield. Niger is an open-pollinated oilseed crop, and was domesticated in Ethiopia. While niger…

Grain Guard heater

Defining Best Management Practices for Using Supplemental Heating with Natural Air Drying

Overall, supplemental heating for natural air drying (NAD) systems does have the potential to be a lower capital alternative to heated air drying to extend the drying season; however, careful management is required to keep operating costs comparable to that of a dedicated dryer system….

straight cut canola

Pre-harvest herbicide and desiccation options for straight-combining canola

While applying a pre-harvest or desiccant frequently provided drydown benefits in straight-cut canola, not applying a pre-harvest herbicide or desiccant should be considered a potentially viable option, especially for early seeded, reasonably uniform and weed free fields where a hybrid with good pod shatter tolerance…

Lodged barley

PGRs on malt barley

Overall, all PGRs reduced lodging in some site-years on CDC Copeland malt barley. Moddus showed the largest reduction in lodging followed by Ethrel, although the Ethrel response was not consistent. Manipulator affect on lodging was inconsistent and quite minor in reducing lodging. None are recommended…

AC Sierra

Assessing sunflower seeding and N rate

An optimum seeding rate between 30,000 and 35,000 seeds/ac for hybrid 63A21 sunflower, and between 40,000 and 45,000 seeds/ac for open-pollinated AC Sierra was determined under no-till cropping systems in Saskatchewan. At N fertilizer prices of around $0.50/lbs., the recommended N fertilizer rate based on…

milling oat trial

Maintaining test weight in milling oats

Seeding early should increase the likelihood of harvesting quality grain before weathering, but this did not guarantee higher yields or higher test weights. Generally, 71 lbs. N/ac resulted in optimum test weights and often produced optimum economic returns. Selecting a variety with genetics for high…

seedling pea

Pea oat intercrop has potential

Intercropping may be beneficial when the desired crop is field pea, with potential contributions to weed suppression and reductions in lodging. There was no indication of a yield advantage to intercropping peas and oats. If profitability can be derived from reductions in in-crop herbicide use,…

ripe oat

Maximizing economic return in oats

A nitrogen fertilizer rate of 89 lbs. N/ac provided the most consistent economic returns when oat prices were between $2.50 and $3.00 per bushel. Fungicide application did not provide a benefit at any N application rate. In an effort to maximize yield and quality, some…

2635 vertical tillage

Vertical tillage no more effective than managing crop residue with the combine

Managing flax residue with vertical tillage, tandem disc, or rake and burn did not produce significantly higher yield for three subsequent wheat, pea and canola crops than chopping and spreading straw with the combine. Limited differences in soil attributes were observed, and they were diminished…

Pollinator

Pollinators increase yield and mitigate drought impacts

Pollinators increased yield by promoting earlier flowering and reducing loss associated with drought. However, pollinators were unable to compensate for suboptimal seeding rate or low nitrogen fertility. Get more bang for your buzz. This project consisted of three experiments that investigated whether pollinators could help…

combining

Understand the limitations of combine grain-loss monitors

Existing combine grain loss monitors could not be correlated to an actual grain loss measurement. However they did provide an indication if grain loss was increasing or decreasing with different feed rates. You can’t manage what you can’t measure. That adage from the business world…

seedling canola

Optimal canola seeding rate based on seed size

This study compared three canola seeding rates (5, 10 and 15 seeds per square foot) with small and large seed
size lots from two different hybrids. 
It concluded that the most economic and least risky seeding rate to achieve adequate plant stand population is about 10…

grain bagging

Storing tough and damp canola in grain bags

Dry canola seeds can be safely stored for up to 6 to 8 months in grain bags, but 12% moisture canola should only be stored for less than 5 months. Canola seeds above 12% moisture content should only be stored for 3 to 4 weeks…

red lentil plots

Agronomic practices for red lentil in Alberta

High lentil productivity was attained in all major soil zones and agroclimatic zones in Alberta. Plant stand density, inoculation, nitrogen management, and weed control recommendations were found to be similar to Saskatchewan. Field trials were conducted at five locations over four years from 2012 through…

Spray pea stubble

Stubble options for winter wheat

Barley silage and pea stubbles were identified as high-yielding alternatives with higher protein and greater stability compared to canola stubble in the Black soil zone. Barley grain stubble was identified as intermediate stubble option while oat stubble was a poor option. Research was conducted to…

ww stand establishment

Winter wheat stand establishment strategies

Two research studies investigated best management practices for winter wheat stand establishment at 26 sites over three years across western Canada. A strong, integrated agronomic system with high seed rate near 40 plants per square foot, a dual fungicide/insecticide seed treatment, and vigorous seed provided…

frost damage varieties

Frost tolerance of faba bean varieties

Tannin-containing faba bean varieties had less frost-damaged seed after a frost event compared to zero-tannin varieties. Yield and Thousand Seed Weight (TSW) declined with increasing frost damage for both variety types. Ten faba bean varieties were assessed after a frost event that occurred during the…

Oat seed size trial

Large oat seed improves emergence, vigour and yield

Seeding large seeded oats improved early season oat biomass by 16% and 29% at two locations in eastern Saskatchewan. Large seeded oats also improved wild oat competition and resulted in 4 days earlier maturity. Yield was 8% higher at one site with large seed. Field…

Inter-row pea

Inter-row seeding into wheat stubble improves field pea standability

Inter-row seeding field pea into 8 to 12 inch (20 to 30 cm) tall wheat stubble significantly improved standability between 6 to 23% when lodging occurred, and would be a low cost method of improving pea harvestability. The three plant growth regulators compared were of…

Lentil field

Replace fallow with pulses to improve water- and N-use efficiency

In a 3-year crop rotation, replacing summerfallow with a pulse crop increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 51%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33%. A 3-year crop sequence study was repeated five times (five cycles) from 2005 to 2011 at…

mature pea field

Higher canola and wheat yields with diverse rotations

Averaged over 6 years from 2010 to 2015, growing canola in rotation with other crops produced 19.4% (9.4 bu/ac) higher yield over continuous canola. Wheat yields were 4.7 bu/ac (7.2%) higher than continuous wheat. When a rotation included pea once every three years, a saving…

feed barley plots

9.3% higher feed barley yield with advanced agronomic practices

Research in Alberta found that advanced agronomic practices, including supplemental post-emergent nitrogen (N) fertilizer, a growth regulator, and dual foliar fungicide applications, contributed to higher feed barley yield when growing season precipitation was not limiting. Combined, the advanced agronomic practices produced an average of 9.3%…

canola field blooming

Up to 32% higher yield with uniform canola stand establishment

Spatially uniform plant stands increased canola yield by up to 32 per cent at low-yielding sites and by up to 21 per cent at high yielding sites compared to non-uniform plant stands. Research by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research scientist Yantai Gan shows the importance…